# Cryptography Engineering: Design Principles and Practical Applications

This Year Hacker News 2

David Wong's _Real World Cryptography_: https://www.amazon.com/Cryptography-Engineering-Principles-P... --- dated, a little wrong about some things, but not insane (like _Applied Cryptography_ is).

Hoffman, Pipher, and Silverman's _Introduction to Mathematical Cryptography_: https://www.amazon.com/Introduction-Mathematical-Cryptograph... --- a good first step into theoretical cryptography.

A quick look at the source code shows the generate_key() function [0] to be insecure. It generates 32 random bytes (good, that's what you need for an AES-256 key), but then it uses those random bytes to sample from a distribution which only has 62 characters. This significantly reduces the security of the key, from 256 bits of entropy to ~190 bits (log2(62^32)). And that would be in the best case, if it were sampling uniformly from the distribution - it is not.

I recommend reading Section 9.7 of Cryptography Engineering [1] to understand why choosing random elements from a set is harder than it seems. A good example of a similar bug is the nasty bug in Cryptocat's PRNG from 2013 [2].

I assume this step was done so the AES key could be included in the URL fragment, since a set of random bytes may not be url safe. I recommend feeding the random bytes of the key directly into the underlying cryptographic functions, and using a urlsafe encoding at a higher level when necessary.

Also, it appears you are using AES [3], a block cipher, but I cannot figure out what block cipher mode you are using. I'll have to dig into the CryptoJS code a little more to see what it defaults to, but I have a sinking feeling that it's ECB, which is completely insecure. Dan Boneh's Crypto I course on Coursera is a good way to learn the basics of block cipher modes.

[0]: https://github.com/jes/hardbin/blob/c77c2d7eb93586e0e009ea4b... [1]: https://www.amazon.com/Cryptography-Engineering-Principles-P... [2]: https://nakedsecurity.sophos.com/2013/07/09/anatomy-of-a-pse... [3]: https://github.com/jes/hardbin/blob/c77c2d7eb93586e0e009ea4b...

Cryptography Engineering [0] is a great book that covers key topics in cryptography with a focus on best practices for implementors and system/protocol designers.

Matthew Green's blog, A Few Thoughts on Cryptographic Engineering [1], has a wealth of interesting posts that are often aimed at explaining cryptography to a "technical but non-cryptographer" audience, and tend to be motivated by recent events in security/cryptography news.