The Standard C Library

Author: P. J. Plauger
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The Standard C Library


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by anonymous   2018-08-16

It depends on the design of the library. In your case, the answer is "No", because the function isn't isolated in the library. For a good exposition on library construction, see P J Plauger The Standard C Library 1992. Yes, it is fairly old, so the version of Standard C is C90, but the ideas it espouses are still valid.

When the linker is building a program, it is processing a series of object files and libraries, looking for unsatisfied references (symbol names) and tracking definitions. In most circumstances, it is started with the symbol main as undefined.

  • As it processes an object file, it notes which symbols are defined that satisfy an undefined symbol and remembers all the names that are defined by that file (and it complains if one of the symbols it finds clashes with one it already knows about).
  • As it processes a static library, it looks for symbols that are defined that it does not already have a definition for. When it finds such a symbol, it links the object file from the library, noting which symbols are defined and which are still undefined.

Now, if the object file containing symbol_foo only defines symbol_foo, then if you've linked your symbol_foo before it reads the library, the linker will ignore the symbol_foo from the library; it already has a definition and doesn't need another. However, it is probable that the object file containing symbol_foo in the libfoo.a library also defines some other symbols, and those other symbols are needed by the linker, so it has to link the object file containing symbol_foo, and complains because that symbol is doubly-defined, even though others in the same file are not.

Plauger advocates that each object file in a (static) library should define a single external symbol. This allows the maximum substitutability for the functions in the library. I believe it is fair to assume that the designer of libfoo.a didn't make that decision, at least w.r.t symbol_foo.

You can extract the object files from libfoo.a (use a temporary directory) and examine their contents with nm; you may be able to do that directly on the library itself. Used with the proper options, that will show you which files define and reference which other symbols.

Note that the rules for linking with shared libraries are somewhat different. There are also 'weak' symbols which can alter the behaviour. You can also often create 'relocatable' or 'relinkable' object files from multiple object files (ld -r usually); that gives you a single bigger object file and alters the equation. Finally, for now, linker scripts can control which symbols are visible outside the library. So, this is no more than a gloss over the subject.

by anonymous   2018-08-06
I'd suggest that P J Plauger [The Standard C Library]( 1992 still makes good reading — and has a good C90 `printf()` implementation. There were some enhancements required by C99 (notably `long long` support), but the core is more than adequate for your current purposes. I doubt if all the functions are 25 lines long or shorter (many are; some are probably longer).
by anonymous   2018-06-05
For an implementation of locales in C90, see P J Plauger ["The Standard C Library"]( (1992). It's still a good book.
by anonymous   2018-03-19

First off, you'll have to learn the rules for each language you learn as it is one of the areas that varies between languages. There's no universal rule about what's what.

Second, in C, you need to know the list of keywords; that seems to be what you're referring to as 'reserved words'. Those are important; they're immutable; they can't be abused because the compiler won't let you. You can't use int as a variable name; it is always a type.

Third, the C preprocessor can be abused to hijack anything; if you compile with #define double int in effect, you get what you deserve, but there's nothing much to stop you doing that.

Fourth, the only predefined variable name is __func__, the name of the current function.

Fifth, names such as printf() are defined by the standard library, but the standard library has to be implemented by someone using a C compiler; ask the maintainers of the GNU C library. For a discussion of many of the ideas behind the treaty between the standard and the compiler writers, and between the compiler writers and the programmers using a compiler, see the excellent book The Standard C Library by P J Plauger from 1992. Yes, it is old and the modern standard C library is somewhat bigger than the one from C90, but the background information is still valid and very helpful.

by AviewAnew   2017-08-20

Reference Style - All Levels



Above Intermediate

Uncategorized Additional C Programming Books

by anonymous   2017-08-20

Read Plauger's "The Standard C Library" for some insights into why various features of the (C89) standard library are as they are - and in particular why parts of the standard I/O library are as they are. One reason is that C runs on very diverse systems and with diverse media; devices such as tapes may well need to be handled somewhat differently from the disk drive you're accustomed to thinking of. Also, on Unix, consider your 'tty' device - it connects a keyboard and a mouse to a screen - three quite different bits of hardware. Coordinating between those is tricky enough; the rules in the standard make it easier.

by anonymous   2017-08-20

The functions from the standard C library that help most are frexp() and ldexp().

  • double frexp(double x, int *p)

    Returns either 0 or a fraction, f in the range [0.5 .. 1.0). Sets *p to the power of two such that the f * 2*p equals x.

  • double ldexp(double x, int p)

    Returns x * 2p

Hence, a decent first approximation to the square root of x can be found by:

int p;
double f = frexp(x, &p);
double r = ldexp(f, p / 2);

As this code shows, you need at most 5 Newton-Raphson 'divide and average' cycles to produce a fully accurate answer:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <math.h>

static double test_sqrt(double x)
    if (x <= 0.0)
        return 0.0;
    int p;
    double frac = frexp(x, &p);
    printf(" x = %22.15e;     f = %22.15e; p = %d\n", x, frac, p);
    double x0 = ldexp(frac, p / 2);
    printf("x0 = %22.15e; x0*x0 = %22.15e\n", x0, x0 * x0);
    for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++)
        double x1 = (x / x0 + x0) / 2.0;
        printf("x1 = %22.15e; x1*x1 = %22.15e\n", x1, x1 * x1);
        x0 = x1;
    printf(" r = %22.15e;   r*r = %22.15e;  x = %22.15e\n", x0, x0 * x0, x);
    return x0;

int main(void)
    double x = 1.23456E-125;
    while (x < 1E+125)
        x *= 987.654;

    return 0;

Extracts from the output:

 x = 1.234560000000000e-125;     f =  5.223124843710012e-01; p = -414
x0 =  2.539342632858085e-63; x0*x0 = 6.448261007050633e-126
x1 =  3.700536659343551e-63; x1*x1 = 1.369397156714553e-125
x1 =  3.518350710213579e-63; x1*x1 = 1.237879172006039e-125
x1 =  3.513633767135102e-63; x1*x1 = 1.234562224955201e-125
x1 =  3.513630600961067e-63; x1*x1 = 1.234560000001003e-125
x1 =  3.513630600959640e-63; x1*x1 = 1.234560000000000e-125
 r =  3.513630600959640e-63;   r*r = 1.234560000000000e-125;  x = 1.234560000000000e-125
 x = 1.219318122240000e-122;     f =  5.037734516005438e-01; p = -404
x0 =  7.837474714727561e-62; x0*x0 = 6.142600990399386e-123
x1 =  1.169750645469021e-61; x1*x1 = 1.368316572575191e-122
x1 =  1.106062520605688e-61; x1*x1 = 1.223374299488608e-122
x1 =  1.104228909406935e-61; x1*x1 = 1.219321484370028e-122
x1 =  1.104227387018778e-61; x1*x1 = 1.219318122242317e-122
x1 =  1.104227387017728e-61; x1*x1 = 1.219318122240000e-122
 r =  1.104227387017728e-61;   r*r = 1.219318122240000e-122;  x = 1.219318122240000e-122

 x =  8.193538364768438e-27;     f =  6.339443253229819e-01; p = -86
x0 =  7.207112563753321e-14; x0*x0 =  5.194247150661096e-27
x1 =  9.287898167957462e-14; x1*x1 =  8.626505237834758e-27
x1 =  9.054816977123554e-14; x1*x1 =  8.198971048920493e-27
x1 =  9.051817090894058e-14; x1*x1 =  8.193539264700178e-27
x1 =  9.051816593794011e-14; x1*x1 =  8.193538364768461e-27
x1 =  9.051816593793999e-14; x1*x1 =  8.193538364768438e-27
 r =  9.051816593793999e-14;   r*r =  8.193538364768438e-27;  x =  8.193538364768438e-27
 x =  8.092380940117008e-24;     f =  6.114430162915473e-01; p = -76
x0 =  2.224416735012882e-12; x0*x0 =  4.948029811005370e-24
x1 =  2.931197771052297e-12; x1*x1 =  8.591920373021955e-24
x1 =  2.845986967837607e-12; x1*x1 =  8.099641821101499e-24
x1 =  2.844711332870451e-12; x1*x1 =  8.092382567361578e-24
x1 =  2.844711046858202e-12; x1*x1 =  8.092380940117088e-24
x1 =  2.844711046858188e-12; x1*x1 =  8.092380940117008e-24
 r =  2.844711046858188e-12;   r*r =  8.092380940117008e-24;  x =  8.092380940117008e-24

 x =  7.511130028860641e-06;     f =  9.844988351428219e-01; p = -17
x0 =  3.845698574776648e-03; x0*x0 =  1.478939752803914e-05
x1 =  2.899411787388324e-03; x1*x1 =  8.406588712846356e-06
x1 =  2.744991037655443e-03; x1*x1 =  7.534975796808706e-06
x1 =  2.740647532044505e-03; x1*x1 =  7.511148894901633e-06
x1 =  2.740644090149702e-03; x1*x1 =  7.511130028872487e-06
x1 =  2.740644090147541e-03; x1*x1 =  7.511130028860642e-06
 r =  2.740644090147541e-03;   r*r =  7.511130028860642e-06;  x =  7.511130028860641e-06
 x =  7.418397617524327e-03;     f =  9.495548950431139e-01; p = -7
x0 =  1.186943618803892e-01; x0*x0 =  1.408835154219280e-02
x1 =  9.059718094019462e-02; x1*x1 =  8.207849194310363e-03
x1 =  8.624024859090236e-02; x1*x1 =  7.437380477020637e-03
x1 =  8.613019058546711e-02; x1*x1 =  7.418409730288888e-03
x1 =  8.613012026886571e-02; x1*x1 =  7.418397617529272e-03
x1 =  8.613012026883701e-02; x1*x1 =  7.418397617524329e-03
 r =  8.613012026883701e-02;   r*r =  7.418397617524329e-03;  x =  7.418397617524327e-03
 x =  7.326810080538372e+00;     f =  9.158512600672964e-01; p = 3
x0 =  1.831702520134593e+00; x0*x0 =  3.355134122267418e+00
x1 =  2.915851260067297e+00; x1*x1 =  8.502188570836042e+00
x1 =  2.714301457717203e+00; x1*x1 =  7.367432403365734e+00
x1 =  2.706818441652081e+00; x1*x1 =  7.326866076067802e+00
x1 =  2.706808098230342e+00; x1*x1 =  7.326810080645360e+00
x1 =  2.706808098210579e+00; x1*x1 =  7.326810080538371e+00
 r =  2.706808098210579e+00;   r*r =  7.326810080538371e+00;  x =  7.326810080538372e+00
 x =  7.236353283284045e+03;     f =  8.833439066508844e-01; p = 13
x0 =  5.653401002565660e+01; x0*x0 =  3.196094289581041e+03
x1 =  9.226700501282829e+01; x1*x1 =  8.513200214037281e+03
x1 =  8.534770092045144e+01; x1*x1 =  7.284230052406829e+03
x1 =  8.506722020095668e+01; x1*x1 =  7.236431952718052e+03
x1 =  8.506675780525467e+01; x1*x1 =  7.236353283497856e+03
x1 =  8.506675780399794e+01; x1*x1 =  7.236353283284046e+03
 r =  8.506675780399794e+01;   r*r =  7.236353283284046e+03;  x =  7.236353283284045e+03
 x =  7.147013265648620e+06;     f =  8.519903738079810e-01; p = 23
x0 =  1.744876285558745e+03; x0*x0 =  3.044593251905283e+06
x1 =  2.920438142779372e+03; x1*x1 =  8.528958945800630e+06
x1 =  2.683839109930689e+03; x1*x1 =  7.202992367993553e+06
x1 =  2.673410187023612e+03; x1*x1 =  7.147122028081623e+06
x1 =  2.673389845507460e+03; x1*x1 =  7.147013266062398e+06
x1 =  2.673389845430072e+03; x1*x1 =  7.147013265648622e+06
 r =  2.673389845430072e+03;   r*r =  7.147013265648622e+06;  x =  7.147013265648620e+06

 x =  5.714937347533526e+60;     f =  8.891035606430090e-01; p = 202
x0 =  2.254145324628333e+30; x0*x0 =  5.081171144543771e+60
x1 =  2.394723262542396e+30; x1*x1 =  5.734699504161695e+60
x1 =  2.390597074573772e+30; x1*x1 =  5.714954372960678e+60
x1 =  2.390593513658524e+30; x1*x1 =  5.714937347546205e+60
x1 =  2.390593513655872e+30; x1*x1 =  5.714937347533526e+60
x1 =  2.390593513655872e+30; x1*x1 =  5.714937347533526e+60
 r =  2.390593513655872e+30;   r*r =  5.714937347533526e+60;  x =  5.714937347533526e+60
 x =  5.644380731040877e+63;     f =  8.575455938313579e-01; p = 212
x0 =  6.957236395157723e+31; x0*x0 =  4.840313825810723e+63
x1 =  7.535100118309196e+31; x1*x1 =  5.677773379294325e+63
x1 =  7.512942052902534e+31; x1*x1 =  5.644429829027134e+63
x1 =  7.512909377296952e+31; x1*x1 =  5.644380731147647e+63
x1 =  7.512909377225895e+31; x1*x1 =  5.644380731040878e+63
x1 =  7.512909377225895e+31; x1*x1 =  5.644380731040878e+63
 r =  7.512909377225895e+31;   r*r =  5.644380731040878e+63;  x =  5.644380731040877e+63

 x = 4.457671009241398e+120;     f =  8.631370354723219e-01; p = 401
x0 =  1.387007739709396e+60; x0*x0 = 1.923790470013767e+120
x1 =  2.300441914113688e+60; x1*x1 = 5.292033000211049e+120
x1 =  2.119093716219477e+60; x1*x1 = 4.490558178120875e+120
x1 =  2.111333991241823e+60; x1*x1 = 4.457731222573127e+120
x1 =  2.111319731695020e+60; x1*x1 = 4.457671009444733e+120
x1 =  2.111319731646867e+60; x1*x1 = 4.457671009241398e+120
 r =  2.111319731646867e+60;   r*r = 4.457671009241398e+120;  x = 4.457671009241398e+120
 x = 4.402636602961303e+123;     f =  8.325007281566217e-01; p = 411
x0 =  4.280886694234198e+61; x0*x0 = 1.832599088887140e+123
x1 =  7.282645088745868e+61; x1*x1 = 5.303691948863432e+123
x1 =  6.664013166606369e+61; x1*x1 = 4.440907148470304e+123
x1 =  6.635298828449913e+61; x1*x1 = 4.402719054282879e+123
x1 =  6.635236697622269e+61; x1*x1 = 4.402636603347328e+123
x1 =  6.635236697331380e+61; x1*x1 = 4.402636602961305e+123
 r =  6.635236697331380e+61;   r*r = 4.402636602961305e+123;  x = 4.402636602961303e+123

You can apply more sophisticated techniques if you wish (for example, improving the estimate of the fraction), but the frexp() and ldexp() functions are likely to be useful.

You can find a discussion of this in Plauger's The Standard C Library, and also in Bentley's More Programming Pearls.

by anonymous   2017-08-20

Most compilers provide source code for the library - however that source code is usually rather more complex and convoluted than you might expect.

A good resource for this is P.J. Plauger's book, "The Standard C Library", which can be had pretty cheaply if you go for a used one. The code presented is not always straight-forward, but Plauger explains it quite well (and gives the reasons why it can't always be straight-forward and still follow the standard).