For understanding floating-point, I recommend [*Handbook of Floating-Point Arithmetic* by Muller *et al*](https://smile.amazon.com/Handbook-Floating-Point-Arithmetic-Jean-Michel-Muller/dp/081764704X/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1532356676&sr=8-1&keywords=handbook+of+floating-point+arithmetic). That is overkill if you are just working on one problem. You can find other introductory floating-point information from references in the [Wikipedia page for floating-point](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floating-point_arithmetic). For numerical analysis more generally, see my link above.

There are [literal books written on the topic of "handling" floating point math](https://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Floating-Point-Arithmetic-Jean-Michel-Muller/dp/081764704X). This question is *far* too broad to answer in a useful manner, especially as you don't even know what direction you want to go in to solve it. Check out [What Every Programmer Should Know About Floating-Point Arithmetic](http://floating-point-gui.de/) as well.