A book that does a great job of covering that concept and ownership in general is "Extreme Ownership: How U.S. Navy SEALs Lead and Win" by Jocko Willink. It's one of my top 3 favorite books and I highly recommend it, especially if you're a leader. He also has a podcast covering lessons in war and leadership. It's up there in quality with Joe Rogan and Tim Ferriss, easily.
Book link, if you're interested.
Here's the link for you. I recommend it that highly.
I hear you, I've been in seen scenarios just like this play out. If gathered the fact that sometimes Management knows they have to deal with some pushback when someone is passed over for a promotion, but it usually works out though not always in the ideal manner (Someone quit, gets fired due to insubordination, or lateral transfer).
I'm sure you needed to vent and also....tired. If you can, once everything is determined, settled in, take time off. I think for me if I would have had a two week vacation (paid or unpaid) I would have been able to handle my situation better but though I know outcome would have been the same (constructive dismissal situation).
You seem to have a good head about yourself, doing the right thing because it's the right thing to do... keep the attitude as positive as you can. Hopefully it will be noticed not just by upper but anyone you work with. Though sometimes this road is the one that at times, is the hardest. Keeping a good attitude will also keep you in competition for the job.
I also recommend the audio book Extreme Ownership . It may help you to improve your skills in how to manage up and manage down.