Yes you can. Its really easy once you get the hang of it. I think its one of jewels of SQL and its especially easy in PostgreSQL because of its excellent temporal support. Often, complex functions can turn into very simple queries in SQL that can scale and be indexed properly.
This uses generate_series to draw up sample time stamps that are spaced 1 minute apart. The outer query then extracts the minute and uses modulo to find the values that are 5 minutes apart.
extract(minute from ts)::integer as minute
( -- generate some time stamps - one minute apart
current_time + (n || ' minute')::interval as ts
from generate_series(1, 30) as n
) as timestamps
-- extract the minute check if its on a 5 minute interval
where extract(minute from ts)::integer % 5 = 0
-- only pick this hour
and extract(hour from ts) = extract(hour from current_time)
ts | minute
19:40:53.508836-07 | 40
19:45:53.508836-07 | 45
19:50:53.508836-07 | 50
19:55:53.508836-07 | 55
Notice how you could add an computed index on the where clause (where the value of the expression would make up the index) could lead to major speed improvements. Maybe not very selective in this case, but good to be aware of.
I wrote a reservation system once in PostgreSQL (which had lots of temporal logic where date intervals could not overlap) and never had to resort to iterative methods.
http://www.amazon.com/SQL-Design-Patterns-Programming-Focus/dp/0977671542 is an excellent book that goes has lots of interval examples. Hard to find in book stores now but well worth it.