Got some time? Read this excellent blog post series.
Or read Aquinas by Ed Feser.
Why not both?
Aquinas heavily covers all that stuff, and Feser's book Aquinas is a great start, followed by the Summa of the Summa and then the Summa itself. After all, the author Aquinas quotes the most is ... God Himself in the Scriptures!
This book is a good start: https://toptalkedbooks.com/amzn/1851686908
His books are also really good - they're high-level, but something like Aquinas will give you a good introduction.
I recommend reading Augustine's *Confessions * and *Answering Atheism * and *Aquinas *.
I think you'll really enjoy them.
You recognize that the Catholic school's educational program is better; and there are reasons why. It's because Catholics believe that the world is created by God, and knowable; and that each one of God's people deserve our love and charity because we love God, Who is Love Itself.
Be prepared to grow with your children; life is a journey. Spend some time at Adoration; just sit and think. As Catholics we believe that the infinitely powerful Lover of Mankind is searching for each one of us, all we have to do is sit and let Him find us where we are, and lead us to where we want to be.