From the looks of it there might be multiple things you can do to make things better, depending on your context.
But first, you need to know that management is a process, not a task, and it cannot be done only on "projects in progress". It starts way prior to that, with how you initiate a project, how you plan it, then you execute it (including analysis, design, programming, testing) and close it properly. Also, you need to monitor and control the project throughout. Missing the planning step and just focusing on already started projects will not yield positive results as you're already missing some vital steps. On the other hand, it seems to me that you might not have the proper development process, and tools/infrastructure and the programming culture within the team might be lacking.
Keep in mind there are some assumptions in my writing, so you decide what's useful, as you surely know your context better. Here are my 2 cents:
Establish and follow a software development process. Sounds to me that you may not have a well-established process on your side.
There is no short answer to this, but as a minimum I highly recommend reading Software Project Survival Guide by Steve McConnell for a pragmatic approach to managing software projects. If you want something more modern it's a good idea to look into Scrum and Kanban after that. If you really want to go deep and understand all the facets of proper project management - read the PMP Exam prepbook for how a project (any sort of project) is generally managed. It is an exam preparation book but offers a nice condensed summary on the most crucial topics. It's the hardest path, but offers the greatest benefit. Be sure to read it last, as you might find it too complex if you start with it.
Establish good programming culture - it's important all people on the team to have proper working habits regarding programming. Another book by Steve McConnell is the undisputed classic here Code Complete: A Practical Handbook of Software Construction, 2nd Edition. Although a bit outdated, it contains huge amount of wisdom and will help you have the basis to then start researching on how to establish a modern continuous integration/continuous delivery environment. I also liked "The Pragmatic Programmer", but I am not sure how well it aged.
Use software tools that will help you with organizing your work and make it much easier to track what happens. Some examples of such software:
Hope that helps!
I know you probably expected a simpler answer, but the hard truth is that it would probably prove to be a long and tough journey. Good results always require persistence and hard work and there are rarely shortcuts.