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Oxford Guide to Effective Argument and Critical Thinking
Dictionaries & Thesauruses
Author: Colin Swatridge
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The term you're looking for is Critical Thinking. There's a very good book about it from Oxford press. My wife used it when going through her MSc at Oxford and I've read it a couple of times to understand exactly what you're asking.
: Oxford Guide to Effective Argument and Critical Thinking
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