Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation, 2nd Ed.
Which is basically all the goodness in Structure and Interpretation... and any book on compilers and interpreters. Basically, though I don't reckon that any modern courses teach from Hopcroft & Ullman, it's a major textbook in the field (unfortunately the 2nd ed is easier to find but the 1st has the works).
Another foundational text is Andrew Tennebaum's book on Operating Systems:
Operating Systems Design and Implementation
To be honest I don't how it compares with the book proposed in the article, since I haven't read that book.
Finally, two personal recommendations for anyone interested in AI (as a study of advanced CS concepts and not just as a way to make a quick buck with a shallow understanding of a few machine learning tutorials):
Artificial Intelligence: A modern approach (Russel & Norvig)
And the free pdf of AI Algorithms, Data Structures, and Idioms in Prolog, Lisp, and Java:
Which doubles as a good textbook for programming languages in general.
I'll agree on Minix. Also the book:
is actually fairly comprehensible. (Unlike some books on similar topics, thinking of "Understanding the Linux kernel" here.) It's quite expensive, but you can probably pick up an earlier edition second-hand.
(NB. I'm not in any way affiliated with the book, it's just good :) )
I had previously bought these books on recommendation for the same purpose but I never got to studying them myself so only take them as second-hand advice.
Operating Systems Implementation Prentice Software
alt text http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/3125C47MR4L._SL500_AA180_.jpg
This book is written by Tanenbaum, the main guy behind Minix, which is what Linux was based on. It provides good overviews for basic OS concepts like memory management, file systems, processes, etc. The concepts in this book book are intimately tied to examples of the Minix OS, which is a good thing.
I think you should start by something like that.
alt text http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/3125C47MR4L._SL500_AA180_.jpghttp://www.amazon.com/Operating-Systems-Design-Implementation-3rd/dp/0131429388
Pretty solid stuff.